Modernist gardens are usually defined by their asymmetry. These gardens have free-flowing space with shadow and light used. These kinds of gardens have complex views unlike the rather controlled vistas that formal, classical gardens have. Most modernist gardens have one or two views that are emphasized. But visitors may not see them the same way since garden designers do not design them to be interpreted the same way. This is because modernist gardens have a partial enclosure of space within hedges and walls. The difference between verticals and horizontals is strengthened with the use of sharp lines. Water is also used architecturally as a reflective surface.
There is a minimal material in modernist gardens. The garden floor is composed of slate or limestone with a little decoration or even none at all. Smooth rendered concrete is used for the paving and the walls.
Planting is restricted in modernist gardens. A lot of these gardens have just lawns, hedges and trees interspersed with major architectural specimens.
Modernist gardens have a majorly rectilinear geometry with emphasis on the horizontal line. There are also examples of designs based on ovals and circles. Regular grids can be used to relate the garden with the house further blending the exterior and interior together.
The Modernist Garden Design Style
The modernist garden must create, define and celebrate space. Garden designers must take cognizance of this fact when creating their garden designs. There is an emphasis on the enjoyment of outdoor life and leisure. Plants are architectural elements in this kind of garden. Specimen trees, clipped hedges and large blocks of planting provide simple screens and architectural elements. These complement horizontal expanses of stone, water, timber and concrete.
The modernist garden is quite popular in the United States especially in places like California where gardens are encouraged as outdoor rooms due to the climate. Modernist gardens employ the architectural philosophy of Modernism where planting is seen as just one element of the whole composition and not the major reason for the creation of the garden. These have led to the development of a lot of elegant, beautiful spaces.
DETAIL EXPLANATION OF THE MODERNIST STYLE
Modernist gardens have a style that can be utilized in any garden no matter its size. They are great for use in crowded cities as a form of escape or relief from the rigors of city life. They do not rely on decorative artifacts. They utilize proportion and scale to bring drama to life.
A lot of modernist gardens are based on a geometric plot with a sense of movement provided by the horizontal line of rectangles. The dynamic horizontal lines contrast with the verticals of walls, hedges, trees and cut across space to bring together various sections in a garden.
Garden designers select materials for their surface qualities in modern gardens. The materials include gravel, limestone and polished concrete. They produce expansive surfaces with specimen trees and reflective water serving as gaps. The materials used in these gardens require great architectural precision with high-quality finish. Most urban modernist gardens utilize simple planting, clipped hedges and fine lawns. Sometimes, contemporary garden designer use a palette that is more complex.
MAJOR DESIGN ELEMENTS OF MODERNIST GARDENS
Modernist designs usually feature a central axis but this feature is quite rare. Lawn rectangles, paving, water and interlock planting can be used to create patterns that are irregular but well defined.
Modernist gardens employ garden furniture with architectural styles. The sculptural Barcelona chair and other design classics set the tone for simple tables, exotic recliners and benches that match.
The plants used are quite limited and they are planted in large masses and blocks. Perennials and grasses are often interplanted to create movement and catch the light.
Clean lines of concrete, timber, glass and steel emphasize the precision of the manufacturing process. Surfaces are enhanced with subtle lighting and paving joints are minimized.
Garden designers create modernist garden designs with reflective pools that bring light to a garden and create undisturbed surfaces to a garden. Technology has now evolved to allow water pools to get filled to the brim or even overflow. This way, the impact and the expanse of the reflective surface can be maximized.
Some of us are lucky enough to buy a house already equipped with the ideal garden. More often, however, it happens that you have to reinvent your green space by imagining it with different plants and characteristics, and the company can be more complex than expected, especially if it is the first time. Often we introduce the elements – a porch in the sun, a pavilion on the back, a bathtub in a nacosto nacosto – considering them as singles, simply where there is space, without thinking about the overall impact of the garden. Many have the same attitude in the choice of vegetation, which is often acquired little by little according to personal tastes and fashion of the moment, without considering how it will blend next to the existing one or what it will look like in a dozen or so years. If we were to judge by the number of television programs and manuals dedicated to the subject, we would all have beautiful gardens, organized and cultivated properly, with comfortable paths, practical patios with access to the kitchen and pretty pergolas for good and bad weather, in addition to a magnificent selection of plants to guarantee shape and color throughout the year. But in reality, naturally, the gardens usually evolve little by little, because starting a new project, especially in an already existing garden, it is a far from simple undertaking. The variety of skills needed – from farming techniques to do-it-yourself, from architecture to design – can easily curb enthusiasm, as does the idea of the confusion that causes, by force of things, every improvement work of the house. Deciding the furnishing elements and establishing the most suitable plants for the garden and the project would be in itself a pleasant task, if there were no numbers to complicate things: in fact dozens of styles of canopies and pavilions, as well as literally thousands of plants , make the choice more difficult.
In the past, the family gardens had an extremely simple scheme, with a main lawn area, a swing, a sand pit and some sturdy plants, capable of resisting the ball. Today, the needs of a family have become more complex. We would all like to use the outdoor space to relax, entertain friends, work and play, but we would also like to have a place where our children, aware of the problems of the environment, can learn about the many plant and animal species that live in the city. Of course we also want the garden to be beautiful, both a continuation of the house and not requiring too much care. Perhaps we ask too much, but I believe that with a good project it is possible to create an exciting and functional space, capable of meeting the needs of everyone.
A family garden must be flexible. Of course, the smaller it is, the more difficult it will be to use it as you would like. If you subdivide it in too many parts it could be artifact, not very functional and claustrophobic. Instead of inserting everything that comes to mind, try to create areas of satisfactory size. Imagine you are a child and think about how you would like to use the garden. To play football and ride my children go to the park; in the home garden, on the other hand, they climb where they can, swing, cultivate, draw, play, observe nature. When planning the garden structure, remember that it is not just a playground, and should be suitable for both children and adults. After all, children grow up and with the passage of time they always have different needs. It will therefore have to be a flexible space. Although often the lawn may seem the most obvious and economical choice for a family garden, if it is very small it will be difficult to cure and use it. In winter it turns into a puddle of mud, making the garden inaccessible. In my garden there are paved areas – some with slate slabs, others with wooden slats – that make it usable all year round and I do not have to scold the kids because they ruin the lawn or come home covered with mud! All the successful gardens exploit the height, using both plants and architectural structures, to create interest at eye level. On the more spacious platform, located at the back, I built a pergola with galvanized pipes to introduce a higher element into the garden, but also to hang tires to be used as swings, on which children love to climb and play with their neighbors’ children. In summer, the plants hide the platform from view, which becomes an intimate space. If I had older children I would keep them lower, but I think it is important for children to have a place where they do not feel observed all the time. When they are older, I will grow vines on the arbor and create a shaded area in which to sit.
Sometimes it is not easy to create a garden without risk for children’s games and at the same time pleasant and attractive for relaxation and social life of adults. In the attempt to satisfy the needs of the whole family, in fact, you could find yourself with a series of disharmonic spaces that can not merge into a convincing whole.
Strengths in a garden project for the family
A spacious patio and lawn for play and relaxation.
A separate playground for a swing or a slide.
A layout that meets everyone’s needs open.
A safe storage area for tools.
A small child-proof fountain.
Harmless plants that guarantee attractiveness throughout the year.
Easy maintenance. ‘Possibility to remotely control children.
To be able to keep an eye on children it is important to allocate a clearly visible space to the games, which often means having a good view from the kitchen window. If the area is not grassy, you can either floor it with wood or cover it with wood chips. Equip it with a slide, a swing or a frame to climb on.
The possibility of having fresh fruit and vegetables transforms a small vegetable garden into one of the most appreciated outfits for every garden. Make sure that it is protected from possible damage caused by balloons and bicycles, and that you have a gate with child-resistant closure.
A patio for guests
Entertaining friends and family in the cool of the garden on summer days is a sure cause for enjoyment. Place the patio near the house for convenient access to the outside, and cultivate various scented plants nearby, on the ground or in pots; just a few steps or a gentle breeze to immediately enjoy the fragrance.
In a family-sized garden you tend to exclude the pools of water in order not to take risks with the children, but building a fountain in which water is out of reach of children will allow you to remedy the problem. Use an underground vessel or basin as a reservoir, and place the chosen ornamental element (an overflowing urn, a grindstone, or a stone) on the outside, resting it on steel frames on top of the tank. A submerged pump, hidden in the basin, will serve to let the water flow in the desired direction.
Pre-drilled grindstone, vase or ornamental stone to let the pump tube pass Preformed basin or basin Sandbag – about 27 kg Fine soil Concrete bricks or blocks Reinforced bars or strong metallic mesh, 60 x 60 cm Fine mesh electro-welded mesh 60 x 60 cm Fine mesh garden net, 60 x 60 cm Submersible pump Connecting ring for pipes 1 m flexible hose Pebbles, slabs or gravel to decorate
Dig a hole for the basin, level the bottom with a layer of compact sand about 2 cm, place the container and make sure it is stable and does not protrude from the ground level. Fill the lateral cavities with the resulting earth and compact it.
Place the reinforcement bars or the sturdy metal mesh over the pelvis, allowing it to protrude at least 15 cm from the edges. If you have chosen a heavy element, such as a millstone, you will need additional support, in the form of piles of bricks or concrete blocks. Careful to leave enough space under the grinding wheel for the pump tube.
Connect one end of the pipe to the stone and the other to the pump. Slide the power cord through a hole that you will have to drill just below the edge of the basin, to prevent contact with the overhanging wire mesh.
Fill the water basin and operate the pump. Establish the flow of the fountain with the appropriate regulator.
Place two pieces of fine mesh welded mesh over the fence to prevent stones and pebbles from falling into the basin. If you use fine gravel or pebbles, roll out additional sections of the garden net.
Cover the wire mesh with stones, pebbles, slabs or gravel.
The ideal plants on this garden ptoject
The project employs shrubs, perennial and herbaceous plants of few pretenses and low costs. Risk-free for children and animals, as well as selected for vigor and resistance to accidental damage, they do not have particular cultivation requirements, apart from a minimum drainage, and are easy to maintain.
There are two garden types associated with Mediterranean regions. They are formal and informal gardens.
Informal gardens utilize gravel and their planting is structured in structural masses and groups. Informal gardens get their inspiration from the arid regions of Spain and Southern Italy and the less arid South of France with its shrubby vegetation or maquis.
In these regions, rosemary, citrus fruits, lavender, olive, grasses, succulents and vines grow well. They have muted white colors and they incorporate purple-blues and soft sage-gray greens. Gravel is used to create pathways and it is also used between areas of planting. The gravel has drift of plants that appear intermittently with arrangements of boulders and rocks. A dry stream bed can be recreated with clusters of drought resistant, informally arranged plants.
For urban spaces, terra-cotta is used along with mosaic tiles or features to add splashes of color.
The walls of these gardens are usually white-washed with clear backdrops for shadows. Hues are usually bold where paint is used. Rustic containers bring in colorful paintings at key points and they can also be used as focal features. The rustic containers can also be arranged in informal groups containing various sizes.
The formal Mediterranean gardens feature stone and water along with specimen trees like tall, slender cypresses and clipped hedges. In some Mediterranean gardens found in Southern Italy and Spain, there is a visible Moorish influence that can be observed. The Moorish influence can be seen in the water features and the courtyards of the Alhambra and Spain’s Generalife. The formal Mediterranean garden design style usually features a decorative parterre planting. In the formal Mediterranean garden style, plants are majorly used because of their foliage rather than the color of their flowers. Cool shade is provided by planting dense trees like Quercus ilex (holm oak).
The Mediterranean Garden Design Style
Mediterranean gardens became popular as a result of the fact that tourists that vacationed in the Mediterranean region wanted a garden that reflected the style of the region. The region features warm, dry summers and mild winters that favor select groups of plants. These plants include succulents, vines, herbs, lavender and olive trees all combined in a unique style. The plants are usually low-growing and hardy. The plants are often natural looking with a background of textured surfaces like scree and gravel. The trees in the Mediterranean garden provide shade and water is barely utilized by landscape designers in this garden. The Mediterranean atmosphere can be recreated in any outdoor space. Roof terraces, decorative courtyards and big sheltered pots can be used.
DETAILED PROPERTIES OF THE MEDITERRANEAN GARDEN
Formal paving is not used to define pathways in Mediterranean gardens. Gravel is used across the entire space and it is used as mulch for planted areas and also as hard landscaping. The Mediterranean garden is unified this way. Plants can be grouped informally and smaller areas of paving can be left to provide stable seating surfaces. Arbors and pergolas are used for shades and they can be matched with vines and other climbers to further boost the appeal of the Mediterranean look in the garden. This also creates a nice seating arena where meals can be shared. Trees can also be planted individually in major locations or in groves for patterned shades.
Water is sparingly used in these gardens. It is hardly used for large pools. Water is majorly used as a focal point or to create sounds. Water can also be used as bubbling fountains or decorative rills in courtyard gardens to recreate the effect of Moorish gardens in Southern Italy and Spain. Terra-cotta pots give the gardens splashes of pink and vivid red while colorful mosaics and tiles give the garden vibrant patterns.
MAJOR DESIGN ELEMENTS OF MEDITERRANEAN GARDENS
Pools and Rills
In Mediterranean garden designs, garden designers confine water to rills. Water is used to mark spatial divisions and refresh the air. There are water bowls and overflowing containers in gravel gardens that are used for gentle sound and reflections.
Shady Seating Areas
In the sun-drenched Mediterranean gardens, shade is highly important. Shade can be provided by trees planted in groups or individually. Arbors with climbers and timber pergolas provide nice outdoor shades.
Terra-Cotta Tiles and Pots
Mediterranean gardens usually have terra-cotta pots. These pots are used as planting containers or focal points in the garden. Old olive oil pots are also nice sculptural features. Larger sized pots can also be used where possible.
Little, colored bubbles laid out in intricate patterns are also used to make the floor surfaces on roof terraces and courtyards.
Gravels in Mediterranean gardens usually consist of limestone. The limestones create a textured, light surface through which plants can grow. Focal points can be created using large boulders. The landscape fabric below suppresses weeds.
Silver Foliage and Succulents
Various species have adapted to drought by using silver, fleshy and fine foliage. Lavender and Rosemary are the most popular choices. Bergenia, Agave, Yucca, Genista and Euphorbia are also used.
Garden designers typically design formal gardens as expressions of man’s superiority over nature. Formal gardens contain elements and features that are expressed in their structure and geometry. Formal gardens have their origins from classical garden design and architecture. These kinds of gardens can be commonly found in Italy and France.
To create a nice formal garden design, there has to be a balance in the design. This balance is achieved through a nice pattern, ground plan or symmetry.
Formal gardens are organized around a pathway or central axis. The garden design of formal gardens often revolves around a major view from the house through the garden. Larger gardens have space for various axial routes that cross the central path and reach into the wider landscape at times. The areas where the various axial routes intersect can be highlighted with the use of water, sculpture and decorative paving.
Formal gardens have an identifiable and clear geometry. Their geometry is usually on a large, balanced scale.
Any kind of regular symmetrical shape can be used in a formal garden as long as the shape sits on one axis. Most formal gardens have rectilinear forms and shapes.
Ellipses, ovals, circles and equilateral triangles can all be used. There is a need to use a minimal materials palette in a formal garden design. Regular paving stones and gravel are the materials most often used. Brick designs, cobble mosaics and other decorative materials can also be used. Water can be featured in fountains, jets or reflective surfaces.
Major planting features are hedges and lawns. Hedges are helpful for identifying views and spaces. Dwarf hedging can be used to create parterres, form knot trees and edge borders. Landscape designers can use pleached trees to add height. There can also be avenues of trees that form paths that can highlight vistas and make visitors focus on a focal point in the distance.
The design of formal gardens is related to the classical architecture that can be found in Italy and Greece. These kinds of gardens are found in the homes of the powerful and wealthy people in these European countries highlighting the symmetry of their homes.
They were also called power gardens. They emphasized control. A lot of the popular formal gardens were very large for example Versailles. But formal gardens need not be excessively large. The basic principles for creating a formal garden design can also be applied to small urban spaces and as many tiny spaces as possible. All that is needed is that there be a balanced, orderly garden design.
The focus of the garden should be highlighted with the use of symmetry about a central axis. The construction and planting must be simple and geometric in nature. Avenues, lawns, clipped hedges, wide gravel pathways, terraces, steps, and balustrades must all be utilized to form a lovely formal garden space.
DETAILED INFORMATION ON FORMAL GARDENS
In formal garden design, there must be a central line or axis. The axis could be a central planting bed, lawn or pathway. The central axis must focus on a dominant feature like a statue, ornament or sculpture.
Cross-axes can also be created if there is enough space. Larger gardens have various axial routes that create views across and along a garden. Paving and planting must be kept simple to create a unique sense of proportion and scale. This is one major reason why minimalists and modernists appreciate this type of garden.
The space for the garden should first be divided into quarters and halves. Gardens that are large can be further divided. But the partitions must be large enough to allow for the long vistas to have more impact. There must also be adequate space for trees and topiaries to be repeated. Expanses of lawn, water pools and parterres are normally featured in formal gardens. Garden designers also use decorative borders to soften the structure of formal gardens.
MAJOR DESIGN ELEMENTS OF FORMAL GARDENS
Formal gardens have a symmetrical balance that can be achieved on any scale. A parterre and an olive tree can form a focal point in a circle that intersects the central path that is paved and pebbled.
Clipped hedges like yew and box are used for evergreen structures and for defining space. Topiaries are used to provide architectural effects and patterns in parterres are formed with dwarf box hedges.
Natural paving stones are used as architectural elements in terraces and pathways. Regular patterns can be created with honed and sawn natural stone slabs. The stone slabs can also be used to edge gravel paths and lawns.
Formal gardens contain mythological features and ancient gods as subjects of statuary. In modern designs, landscape designers use abstract works and broad figurative subjects.
Punctuation and focal points can be provided with ornaments like large urns that are usually placed on balustrades and plinths. Modern formal gardens use the same technique although the elaborate decoration in them is reduced.
Landscape architecture involves the design of landmarks, outdoor spaces, and structures to make an environment beautiful to achieve specific social or environmental objectives. Landscape architecture involves the examination of current soil, ecological and social processes, conditions in a landscape. Landscape architecture involves site planning, residence landscape planning, green infrastructure planning, landscape design, planning of recreation centers and parks, managing stormwater, restoration of environments, management of visual resources etc. Professionals in the field of landscape architecture are called landscape architects.
Landscape architecture incorporates various fields. It involves fine art, ecology, soil science, architecture, botany, geography, industrial design, civil engineering, horticulture etc. Landscape architects design public infrastructure, design residential areas, design parkways and parks, design forest reserves, manage conservation areas, reclaim landscapes, design car parks for corporate and public buildings remove toxins from rainwater, secure public and private buildings, reclaim degraded areas like wetlands and mines among other functions. They focus on the landscapes of various external spaces and structures. They work with various materials and can work on small designs, rural designs, soft and hard materials etc. with a lot of focus on green effects and environmental impact.
Landscape architects are creative people that conceptualize designs and ideas and bring them to life. From their designs, they come up with technical design drawings with accurate specifications and measurements. They also serve as consultants and they review proposals. They conduct environmental audits and assessments, and they also serve as witnesses on legal cases that involve outdoor spaces and landscapes.
Landscape architects work in various rural and urban environments with all kinds of structures, both private and public. Landscape architecture is focused on creating a balance between natural and manmade environments.
To become a landscape architect, one needs to obtain a Bachelor of Science degree, and/or Master’s degree in landscape architecture. They also need to get a license before they can practice in the United States. To get their license, they finish from a university, get some work experience, pass a tough exam and take a lot of further educational courses. Landscape architects take course work in the subjects like psychology, preservation of historical sites, planning, horticulture, site design, drainage etc.
Landscape architects are different from other landscape professionals and should not be confused with others. They are strictly designers and architects and not builders. This is the same way architects are different from structural engineers and builders. Or the way computer scientists are different from computer engineers. They work hand in hand with other professionals to bring landscape designs to life.
How landscape Architects Accomplish Projects in Landscape Architecture
Landscape architects is more complex than mere doodling or making sketches on paper. It is an intricate work that involves a lot of precision. They need to take various steps to bring designs to life and create large-scale landscape projects. The following are the steps that landscape architects take to bring a design to life.
They learn more about a landscape: At the beginning of a project, a landscape architect must first know all they can about a project and the requirements of their client. They visit the proposed site, carry out analysis, ask relevant questions, check legal and building codes and research the history of a site.
Conceptualization: In this phase, a landscape architect starts to come up with concepts for the project. They decide whether to create 3D models or use their drawings alone, they decide what green living concepts to implement and they look at what structures to add or remove. They also seek for public input, especially for public projects.
Design: Here, designs are drawn, and computer models are built to show simulations of the project. First, some initial drawings are made to cover a project. After the client approves the drawings, special construction drawings are then made. These plans are well detailed and show how every aspect of the project will be constructed, the type of materials to be used and the exact position and specification of everything in the project down to the tiniest detail.
Construction: Even though the landscape architect has done most of his/her work, they still need to visit the site and see how the construction is going. They ensure that deviations are not made, and they provide support where they can. They also help to solve problems that may arise. When the project is completed, they carry out a final inspection. They may even be retained to help with maintenance of the site. Some towns and cities have landscape architects in their payroll that help with management of parks, landscapes and other public spaces.
Landscape architects find employment in various places. They can be employed in public and private organizations. They work in landscape architectural, engineering and planning firms. They work with other private organizations in physical planning departments and companies that offer services related to land development and planning.
Within the public sector, landscape architects find employment opportunities within state, regional, federal and other regional agencies that handle land development, preservation and planning. Some popular agencies that employ landscape architects are the Veteran Administration, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Land Management, the Department of Transportation, the Soil Conservation Bureau, the US Army Corps of Engineers and the United States Forest Service.
Landscape architects also find a lot of employment in the academic field where they lecture the next generation of landscape architects and carry out academic research in colleges and universities. They also lecture in community colleges and continuing education programs. They are found in the department of art, architecture, estate management, urban and regional planning and other related fields.