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18 May 2018

Oriental Garden

This term usually includes Chinese and Japanese gardens, although, strictly speaking, the Persian ones that have had so much influence on subsequent Moorish architecture should also be included. The first certain description of the Chinese gardens we find in 1685, in a book by Sir William Tempie who, having been ambassador to Holland, had undoubtedly acquired his knowledge through the descriptions of the merchants of the Netherlands. In the following century we find much more precise information until, in 1772, “A Dissertation on Oriental Gardening”, written by Sir William Chambers, was published: this, although not a written treatise by direct experience, had great fame and contributed not a little, as well as creating the western landscape gardens, also to make known, at least for a certain period of time, those buildings and ornaments that go under the general name of “chinoiserie”.


To our modern eyes that see things in perspective, the descriptions of Chambers on Chinese gardens, probably exaggerated by the desire to affirm their theories on the landscape, seem strangely similar to a gallery of paintings by Ruysdael or Salvator Rosa, separate buildings. It is perfectly true that the Chinese honors nature and they tended to keep the salient aspects intact by inserting them into the general context, but the examples we obtain from ancient engravings or which, transformed, have come down to us, speak above all of a set of rules rituals and metaphysics that wild nature can not possess.

However, the ancient Chinese gardens, as well as influencing Western taste, arrived in Japan together with Buddhism, writing, and all the other things that, once introduced, took on a particular physiognomy; today, speaking of oriental gardens, one intends above all to speak of the Japanese ones, which however, in return, influenced their Chinese ancestors through the course of the centuries.

The Japanese gardens take advantage of nature in such a special way that our eyes show an unmistakable style: what is a mistake, because the styles are different and the Orientals immediately perceive the difference.

Of these styles there are three main ones: the real landscape garden, the most classic, which is called “shin” and achieves the greatest decorative effect, is what we might call “representation”; the “gyo” style, more personal and intimate, and the “so” style, the simplest, often made up of few elements. These three styles are often found simultaneously in private gardens, distributed according to their disposition in relation to the house of which they form the ideal completion, and their subdivision, very ancient (dates back to ‘600), still lasts today with few variations. The gardens that surround the houses must then be distinguished from the monastic gardens or «contemplation», called karesansui or dry landscape. They are of even more ancient origin, going back to the Zen Buddhist doctrine, around the beginning of the fifteenth century, and they normally extend in front of the veranda where the monks sat in contemplation.

Their characteristic, from which the name derives, is the absence of any form of water, imitated by stone, rocks, and sand; any form of vegetation is absent, except moss; these gardens are usually constructed so as to completely absorb the thought in a symbolic sense, without external distractions. The most famous is the garden of Ryoanin, near Kyoto, formed by only raked sand with a design and isolated mossy stones, and framed by trees that fend it and preclude it from external glances. In the garden of Daisen-in, also near Kyoto, we have another remarkable example of dry landscape: here stones and sand simulate a watercourse with such ability to make it seem really existent (there is even a stone bridge that crosses it); it even seems to form some waterfalls. However, it should be borne in mind that the term “sand” means actually speaking of a special type of thin quartz stone, coming from the surrounding mountains, which has a fascinating brightness and lends itself very well to such optical deceptions. It is clear that not all the gardens of the temples are of this type, given the variety of seven existing in Japan, but many, from a later period or related to palaces or parks, they are clearly aquatic and even those that are in part use the water in the widest and most natural way possible; However, they always follow very precise symbolic rules, such as the one that every watercourse must cross the garden from left to right with respect to perspective
front. Stones and wood are widely used, as well as rocks, and corroded by time; the trees are often thin but very thin, the leaves are used copiously and almost always they are cut and shaped the ground.
The same azaleas are treated in this way. Actually, the only flowers that stand out from the eyes are in the appropriate period, those of the cherry trees: they are so important that they are organized specifically to see the cherry blossoms in particular places where there is a considerable quantity; there are also aquatic filters, such as water lilies, and often irises, on the edges of ponds and ponds. Occasionally other flowers meet, especially peonies and lilies; Flowers are as a essential ornament.
In compensation, other decorative elements, such as pavilions, urns, and sometimes in the most important gardens, ancient sculptures, all of the clear Chinese derivation, are often superfluous. The various types of bamboo are widely used, not only as plants, but also to form, with their reeds, Palisades, supports for verandas or climbing plants or other, and in practice.
the Japanese gardens wish to be idealized as a result of philosophical and ethical schemes that escape, just as they do in their paintings; this also explains why, in spite of their fascination with the evolution of the western garden and the short vogue of the “ucineserie”, especially in England, they have never really been elaborated in Europe: because, in de fi nitive, they are too unrelated to our spirit. For example, in reference to the famous imperial villa of Katsura, which has many pavilions, bridges, artificial hills and a pond with three small islands, leaf has its own particular meaning that we are not able to understand because our rational way of thinking only incorporates the synthesis of the decorative concept as a whole.
In the same way we can not understand the subtle game of rules that determine the construction of the paths that lead to the pavilion used for the tea ceremony in the garden: here too every stone and every ornament has its symbolic meaning that escapes us completely, as indeed it happens for the same ceremony of the preparation of the tea that in our eyes appears more like a theatrical representation than as something real and practical. It is therefore very sensible for Europeans to refrain from reproducing Japanese gardens that would only be copied with bad taste, just like everything that has not been assimilated in spirit.

13 May 2018

Sino-Japanese garden

A tradition far removed from the formal garden of the oasis had evolved in China and was already established during the Han dynasty (140-87 BC). One of his distant heirs was destined one day to fertilize the West in turn and to influence not only the English landscape gardens and the Jardins chinois-anglais, but also the modern gardens of Northern Europe and America. His most direct descendant was imported with many other things of Chinese culture in Japan in the eighth century. The base of the Sino-Japanese garden is a veneration of nature that took its roots from the mysticism-Taoist naturalism, subsequently reinforced by Zen Buddhism, with its cult of the hill, the grove and the lotus pond, and its love for the quiet meditation.

The Chinese garden is essentially a place to philosophize, leaving aside earthly conflicts. Nothing in it can be rushed or improvised or flashy. The paths are not made, as in the West, to access directly from one point to another; but rather to savor slowly and fully every view and every atmosphere of the scene that manifests itself along the way. For this reason, they are tortuous and even zig-zag, while the bridges, with their steep arches or with a sudden change of direction, invite a break to admire the reflections. The natural landscape that the Chinese most venerated was the grandiose; high mountains, waterfalls, foggy valleys, and lakes. Their gardens were creations of the mind to such an extent that a great landscape could be indicated by a few carefully placed irregular rocks; the rest of the painting was filled with imagination. In this, he showed his affinity with Chinese landscape painting, in all its economy of shadows and evocative lines. There was indeed a very close connection, and the garden through which one wandered slowly was a tinkering remake of the long scrolls of Chinese landscape painters. When the Chinese garden came to Japan, it underwent many changes, but the basic principles were never lost. It was drawn with more solid lines in a better-defined composition, perhaps losing in poetry what it gained in clarity. Only in the sixteenth century was the tea ceremony introduced, which in the eyes of the West was the essence of a Japanese garden. For Europeans, the careful setting of this ceremony may seem an excessive emphasis on a banal rite, but for the Japanese, it has a profound meaning: it is a deliberate seclusion from the conflicts and ambitions of the world and a recognition of the spiritual values of philosophy and aesthetics. There is a fundamental difference in the relationship with nature between the Eastern Buddhist and the Western philosopher.

The Westerner will say, “Here is where I will plant this tree”. The Zen Buddhist will say, “I am this tree, and that’s where I want to go”. This ability to travel with the mind is well illustrated in the garden of Ryoanji, in Kyoto. It can only be observed from the wooden platform of the temple, and no one enters except the monk who raises the sand meticulously forming traditional designs that encompass the rock islands with such perfection that the contemplative mind can travel through the garden to eternity. Most Japanese gardens are less austere but still deeply evocative. They all draw their roots from symbolism and tradition, but although philosophical and religious reasons can be found for design rules, they are actually precepts of good composition. The prescribed grouping of 3, 5 and 7, the dimensions of the hills and the carefully correlated forms, the partially veiled waterfall, the location of the high guardian stone in the foreground in the painting, all this has its own traditional meaning, but everything is based also on sound design principles. Two of the fundamental principles of the Japanese composition is the grouping of the vertical, the reclined and the lying, and the contrast between static and dynamic forms. To compose these groups, rocks with familiar shapes are used, such as the statue-shaped stone, the arch-shaped stone, and the reclined ox-shaped stone. The rocks also have a name depending on the specific location in the composition, to underline a view, a focal point or an atmosphere. Such are the stone wrapped in mist, the shadow of the full moon, the guardian stone and the waiting stone.

Three main forms of the garden eventually crystallized, although later they were also used together in a large “garden for strolling”. Each form can be executed in a variable degree of perfection, from the pure indication of a sketch to the completed picture in the round. The three types of the garden were the flat garden, the garden without water and the garden with lake and islands or with hills and water.
The flat garden is often used in smaller courtyards or even in a lane. The soil can be covered with sand, sometimes raked to form a design. The composition is given by the careful grouping of rock, ornament, and plant. A lantern (the reclined shape), a bamboo (the vertical form) and a flat stone (the prostrate form) can form the whole picture. In the waterless garden, there are hills, but the water is indicated only by the placement of the stones, more or less as were the mountains in the Chinese gardens. The garden with hills and water is a landscape complete with clustered hills, a stream and a rock arrangement in the foreground, or a lake with islands. The completed view has infinite variations, but the basis of the garden project follows defined rules. At the imperial palace of Katsura in Kyoto, the garden for walking is a deeply evocative experience.

Observed on a superficial level, it is a landscape of incomparable beauty, in which an infinite variety is merged in a quiet unity; but below the surface, there is a profound philosophy of the relationship between man and nature. In the Japanese gardens, the shape and placement of the plants are as carefully controlled as those of the rocks. The tradition of artificially small trees is well known, and if a plant sooner or later grows too much for its placement it is replaced by a smaller one. The most used forms of plants are the very rounded reclined ones, such as Japanese azalea and dwarf conifers; the gnarled tree, exemplified by the pine bent by the wind; and the vertical shape of the bamboo. Some of the most beautiful Japanese gardens are entirely covered by a carpet of moss, a coating that accentuates the molded shape of the ground and creates the perfect structural contrast with the rock. The structure plays a more important role in Japanese gardens than any other historical tradition. Although it is an idealization of nature, the Sino-Japanese garden has always been closely related to buildings, and it is only in relation to oriental architecture that one can appreciate the shapes of lanterns and bridges. They show the same exuberance and the same dynamic form, which is nevertheless firmly rooted to the ground because of its sense of balance. In their setting, they are part of an entire world in tune with them but lost in western environments they can also look bizarre. The influence that the Sino-Japanese garden has had on the West is not easy to evaluate. Although the first descriptions of the Chinese garden may have been misrepresented, they certainly served to light up the imagination of the English landscape school and, if the results were totally different, the ideas behind the two types of gardens had much in common. Both were an idealization of nature, both relied on balance and natural form rather than symmetry, and both incorporated the traditional architecture of their respective civilizations. Above all, both were closely related to the art of landscape painting. It is a revealing fact but not surprising that the highest peak reached by the English landscape garden is derived from the translation of an idea into the language of English countryside and philosophy. The less successful result of the Jardin anglo-chinois derived from a more direct copy of an original not fully understood. The winding paths on the plan of an old Chinese park are clearly the ancestors of the winding avenues of the Anglo-Chinois garden, but what the plan does not show are the hills and valleys, the rocks and the changing views that justify the tortuosity. The map of a mountainous region shows the same swaying and sinuous roads, meaningless in the absence of the reliefs. The blind imitation of Japanese gardens does not give a better result even today, but we have much to learn from their infallible sense of balance, from the evocative forms, from the economy with which their landscape is sketched and by the quiet moderation of their compositions. The influence of Japanese landscape architects has played a vital role in the development of landscape design in the US since the mid-twentieth century, and since then their influence has spread throughout the world.

25 Apr 2018

The rock garden

The rock garden, in its most common sense, is often confused with the alpine garden which is instead much more specialized.

In Italy, it often takes on another form, peculiar to the coasts: that is, it is the solution to extremely steep soils near the sea.

In the two cases the plants used will obviously be very different from each other: alpine or mountain plants in the first case; plants and shrubs characteristic of the Mediterranean maquis, generally united with succulents, in the other.

There may still be another solution, particularly for those who wish to have a rock garden in the plains, where it is very difficult to grow the mountain vegetation: it consists of using instead of those normally used, perennial or bulbous herbaceous plants, small shrubby evergreens that form, so to speak, the backbone of the garden.

The rock garden

However, the system for the construction of the rock garden will always be the same, with the difference that in the case of completely steep terrain there can be no choice on the position in which to erect it, except for some amendments, while in flat or moderately wavy extensions, it can be built wherever it is deemed necessary or preferable.

The most important condition for the plant will be that of a perfect drainage; therefore the existence of a slope will greatly facilitate the work, naturally providing conditions favorable to the drain of the water, much better than what can happen in a flat land where you often have to provide artificially, digging into the subsoil up to an adequate depth and filling the excavation with pieces of stone, pebbles, large fragments of bricks, in order to avoid a soil accumulation that would bring excessive moisture.

In general, the rock garden should never be placed in the shade of trees, nor located in such a way that the coldest winds hit it.

In the vicinity of the sea, even the salty winds will be of great damage, but in this case there is little to do since the slopes usually face the sea: where possible, we will try to artificially give the slope a slope as much as possible perpendicular to the coast line so that the salt brought by the wind does not beat directly on the plants.

In some gardens there are various levels of terrain and, unless the overlying ground is supported with retaining walls, it is difficult to keep the entire difference in level; the construction of a rocky cliff-shaped garden will make such a position attractive and will avoid many inconveniences connected to the maintenance of normal connecting works or of grassy prunings.

Do not forget, in case you can choose the position in which to place the rocks, that the construction of the garden will involve a considerable weight of land and stones, whose transport will be very facilitated if the chosen place will be near a path: the move of the material would be greatly intertwined if it were to be carried out between flower beds or on large lawn extensions and could also result in damage to the other parts of the garden.

So, if the rock garden must be accompanied by the flow of a stream and small waterfalls, this can be done by using electric motors and pumps (see Fountains in the garden), but some measures must be implemented.

Care should be taken that the chosen position is close to the electrical connection, in order to allow the cables to travel as little distance as possible, and to a water intake, to avoid excessive transport fatigue, when it must be replaced by re-filling the quantity of water lost by evaporation, dispersion or seepage.

The pools and the bed of the stream should be made of cement, more durable than plastic, made during construction and left to dry perfectly before proceeding further, to avoid any cedi- actions and cracks; also the plastic, if it will be used, must be incorporated during the work, in the desired position.

The pipe that will bring the water from the pump to the upper basin will have to be installed almost at the beginning of the construction, because it would be very difficult to hide it later, when the boulders had been placed in the right position: its path must be marked order not to produce damages during the implementation of the following parts and at least one meter must be left exposed at both ends, so as to make the necessary fittings possible.

As for the rock, the best thing is always to use the local stone that will seem more natural and will adapt in the best way to the surrounding environment; moreover the transport of the necessary masses, obviously quite big and heavy, is quite expensive and it is, therefore, preferable to trace them as close as possible to the place where they will have to be placed. It can be said that in Italy only the Po Valley is distant from quarries or mountains where the stones can be traced, because the rest of the country is normally stony, both in the mountains and in the hills, and the qualities of the rocks can be very many.

Some of them, although they are reputable material soft enough to be etched in order to form irregular holes and pockets on the surface, where many plants will grow very well.

It is logical that, having traced the necessary rocks in the vicinity, it will not be possible to choose their quality as regards the siliceous or alkaline composition; therefore it will be necessary to ascertain their nature, although empirically: some drops of lemon or vinegar on the surface will already give a sufficient clue, sizzling and producing a slight effervescence in the presence of limestone.

The plants must be generally adapted to the type of rock, avoiding that absolutely calcifuge on strongly alkaline rocks; however, in many cases and for many plants it will be sufficient to abound in soil and acid soil to allow their life in good condition even on limestone.

The soil has a decisive importance and must consist of a mixture of good fibrous and fertilized earth, of humus in the form of earth of well-ripened leaves and peat, or crumbles of crushed stone, coarse sand, and fine gravel.

The proportions should be approximately 4 parts, 2 parts and 1 part and 1/2 respectively and can be mixed with a generous amount of bone meal.

The amount needed varies considerably depending on the extent of the garden and its location; it is evident that building the entire relief on a flat surface will require a larger amount of soil than it takes to build the plant on a naturally steep ground, since it will be a solid base to the rocks that will come hand placed on the surface.

The preparation of the place chosen for the construction is very important: first of all it is necessary to make sure of the efficiency of the drainage, increasing it if the earth is too compact and crowded; therefore it is necessary to establish in general the shape and the size of the construction to be carried out, marking in some way, with posts stuck in the ground or other, the general planimetry.

Preparing an exact plan is almost impossible because the final result of the work will be determined by the shape and size of the rocks, which is very difficult to evaluate, even if you can view in general the complex you want to get, especially if the chosen area is already naturally steep.

The steps and steps that go through the rock garden must be done first, in order to be able to move more easily and to delimit the areas of construction; the steps should never be perfectly in the center but moved as far as possible to create areas of irregular size.

If the garden is built on a slope, it is easier to descend the rocks from top to bottom, placing them in place; if instead the ground is flat, obviously the work will be more complicated and tiring and the rocks will have to be mostly raised on the artificial base of land that will be built, proceeding in ascending direction.

Care must be taken that the stones are all facing in the same direction and have roughly the same angle so that they appear as the result of a natural outcrop and not of a disorderly eruption that has scattered them in bulk.

The work must be done with care, no matter how long it will take, because it is good that every subsequent step is well established before proceeding further, in order to avoid any future failure; it would be good if the base of land, especially if artificial, was consolidated by rain, or at least watered very copiously so as to make it stabilize well (as when building roadbed roads), before placing additional weights on top.

Above all, it is important not to be dismayed by piles of stones and earth and not to rush to put them “on site” to clear everything: you would have to start over again because you have mistaken the positions of the stones or because the soil, not well arranged, can cause dips or can run off the first rain, smearing everything and causing the stones to move.

If the rock garden is built in the plains, without even a natural slope, it will often have to be, in practice, made up of a small artificial hill, with two or more slopes, and in this case it is even more important that the soil is consolidated to perfection at every stage of the job.

A variant of this last type of plant can be given by the construction of a wall with two sides, much higher than wide, but containing soil between the two side walls and the rather rough stones between them: this will not be a real garden rocky, but can accommodate a number of rupicolous and rudimentary plants and will be less encumbered in a small garden.

In coastal rock gardens for xerophytes and xerophytes, drainage is even more important, if possible, that in the traditional rock garden, sometimes there is also the difficulty of having a part made up of only rock: the construction, in this case, must be done on the contrary, chiseling the rock itself to build pockets, bags and platforms to be filled with soil so as to be able to place plants that are content, yes, of little land, but which certainly can not live without having at all.

Often, however, coastal landslides are composed of rocks mixed with the ground, especially in parts a little apart from the sea, and in this case we will proceed as for the implantation of any other rock garden, with the advantage of being able to use the stones existing on the spot, replacing the voids with which they were extracted with terracotta he will have left.

Naturally, suitable plants will be even more specialized than those used in the hinterland: small evergreen shrubs, mostly conifers, normally used, will be replaced by low myrtle or juniper bushes, to be kept in shape by careful pruning; the height can be given, in positions sheltered from the salty winds, from Arbutus unedo cultivated as small tree; the Brotocarpus, as well as the Portulaca grandiflora, they can be too intrusive and must be cut and multiplied from one year to the next, because they form a large quantity of ground waste; Cactaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae will provide excellent plants of all sizes and position together with Agave, Aloe, and other succulent Liliaceae.

We have said that in lowland climates, where rock plants often can not live, you can also build a rock garden using normal perennial or annual herbaceous plants. In this case, the plant will not be very different from the normal one, but it will often be flatter and more like a cliff than a mountain landscape. The used evergreens will be dwarf or prostrate conifers, the flowering plants will have to be largely changed during the various seasons and will consist of the dwarf varieties of Tropaeolum, Dianthus chinensis, Begonia x tuberhybrida and semperflorens, etc.

In spring we will use various small bulbous plants such as Crocus, Tulipa kauffmanniana, stellata, and other botanical species, and also Myosotis, Viola tricolor, Bellis.

As perennials, many types of Sedum, Sempervivum, and other Crassulaceae that resist the climate of the plains will be used. In this type of rock garden, which is rather tiring due to the necessary rotation of plants, but which can be very attractive, the most important thing is the choice in the combination of the colors of the flowers. If this choice is made with taste, the result will be lively and graceful and will not make you regret the most sophisticated gardens formed by mountain plants.

News and curiosity obout the rock garden

Among the treatises written on the gardens, very interesting is “Les Jardins”, published in 1782 by the abbot Jacques Delille (1738-1813) estimated in his time as a great poet, a member of the French Academy and a translator of Latin classics and Greeks.

His fame, like that of many poets of the period devoted more to form than to the essence of poetry, did not survive for long, but his precise technical descriptions allowed him to write this curious book: curious as it is a poem in verses, divided into four songs.

In the first he gives advice on the choice of land and on how to increase prospects and pleasant landscapes; in the second one teaches the art of planting trees and shrubs; the third is dedicated to flowers, rocks, meadows, and water; the fourth deals with the artificial ornaments of the gardens. Although its verses are artificial, it is one of the few complete treatises on gardens entirely written in poetry.

Read also: Albizzia (Leguminosae)

14 Mar 2018

TYPES OF GARDENS: Productive garden design

In history, there were two major types of productive gardens, at the low end, we had the cottage gardens and some small areas of private gardens where produce was grown to complement food sources and also as a hobby. On the high end, we had large Victorian gardens with massive walls that supplied vegetables, fruits and flowers for parties and events.

Productive garden design

The Victorians really invested in productive gardens although this kind of garden did not originate from them. In France, Renaissance gardens produced decorative produce in potagers which are classy parterres. The word ‘potagers’ is still used today to refer to lovely productive gardens. The gardens of abbeys in the Medieval era had little vegetable and herb beds with a little decorative gardening involved.

During the Second World War, there was a Dig For Victory campaign that increased the rate at which homegrown vegetables and fruits were harvested. But food supplies increased after the war and this effort died down. But there has been an increased awareness on the desirability of organic produce and productive gardens are slowly making a comeback.

Productive garden designs include an orderly layout consisting of geometric beds that include paths for maintenance and easy access. The materials used differ, but most of them are strictly utilitarian. They include brick pathways, concrete slabs and compacted earth. Greenhouses and cold frames are used to protect plants that aren’t that strong and for plants still at infancy level. The types of plants changes per season but bushes and fruit trees are usually grown all year round.

Herbs that tend to spread round can be controlled by the use of low box hedges. Irrigation water is also used as a decorative element in such gardens.

Productive gardens contain a functional surface and layout creating a large sense of order. In history, there has been physic gardens and monastic gardens that are divided into various geometric beds filled with medicinal and culinary vegetables and herbs along with taller plants like rose and bay tree that are planted as a point of focus.

The attractive and practical designs are still being used today. Concrete, stone and brick are used to make the pathways. Pathways are usually wide and they can accommodate wheelbarrows and they provide a lot of space for one to work on the beds. Hedging is provided by timber and dwarf box hedging. The best productive garden designs have beautiful rows of plants, well-arranged pathways and lovely interplanting of crops making them visually appealing as a garden and productive endeavors that produce healthy food.


In the last hundreds of years, productive planting was just an alternative that was kept at one section of a major garden to give trees, flowers and plants a nice home. But, people now realize that productive gardens are great for growing healthy food and they also save money by growing expensive and unavailable food like redcurrants.

To manage productive gardens well, their garden design needs to be well planned. The flower beds must be planted with various crops every year so the soil won’t get weakened. Garden designers can also use cold frames and greenhouses so the planting season can be extended. For a more flowery feel in the garden, dahlias, nasturtiums, lavender hedging and other ornamental plants can be grown.

Instead of using box hedging, dwarf apples and other fruit trees can be used to create divisions between different areas of the garden. There could also be training along wires to create beautiful screens that accommodate both fruits and flowers along with a nice architectural framework for the winter season.

Productive garden design 2


This garden design involves the crops in rows creating a rectilinear pattern that is visually appealing. Clipped hedging and runner beans support can be used to enclose various sections and the garden can be made more colorful with the addition of lavender and dahlias.


Modern productive gardens have their root in the walled kitchen gardens of large country houses. The wealthy people in the Victorian era showcased their wealth by serving their guests with rare household produce. The gardens were also a source of food for the entire household.

The garden design saw the crops being laid out in geometric beds arranged in boxes and separated by gravel, ash and beaten earth paths. South facing walls that radiated heat were used as anchor points where tender fruit trees were planted. The fruit trees were positioned this way to protect them from hard frosts. Soft fruits were planted under netted frames to protect them from birds.

The garden design saw greenhouses being incorporated into the wall structure to accommodate early crops and tender crops like apricots and peaches.


Obelisks, trellis and other ornamental features can be used in the garden design to create rhythm and height in the garden. They also provide support for sweet peas, runner eans and other climbers.



Raised beds are used to make drainages better and create a sense of order. The raised beds had an increased height of 1m or 3 ft. giving disabled people better access to their gardens.



Pathways are a minimum of 1m or 3 ft. wide so that movement within the garden can be easy. Gravel, bricks, stone slabs and other hard surfaces are perfect as they can withstand everyday use.



Plant pots and terra-cotta rhubarb forcers provide practical decoration in the productive garden. There can be arches for cordons and patterned pebble or brick paths to provide additional decoration in the garden.



Planting of crops should be in rows so they can be well cared for and harvested easily. It also helps to keep good records. The spaces will also make it easy to remove weeds. The geometric garden design of crops in rows makes the garden unique.


Also read: The right approach to create a Perfect garden design.

18 Feb 2018

A simple garden project for the family

The owners of this garden wished to create a simple space for the whole family, with beautiful plants, a corner for children to play and a large dining area.

It was also important to take into account the new glass extension of the house, which unified the interior with the exterior.

A simple garden project for the family

In this garden project for the family to make the most of the sun, the main dining area has been placed at the opposite end of the house, with a pergola that provides shade to the guests and acts as a support for the wisteria.

The view from the house is that of a long rectangular lawn with a formal look. Olive trees and box spheres are arranged at regular intervals between the luxuriant and exuberant vegetation of perennial grasses, which give structure, scent and color to the edges.

A bench is placed on one side of the garden, in the middle of the vegetation, so that you sit down to watch the children’s play can catch up to the last ray of the evening sun.

A small border of lavender and boxwood fencing the play area, equipped with a swing and a carpet of bark shavings.

All around the garden, a fence made of trellises and support poles guarantees privacy.

Mirrors mounted on the wall amplify the feeling of space under the pergola, where, around the base of a tree, in a corner, a bench has also been inserted.

DIMENSIONS 16 x 10 m (160 sm)


DISTINCTIVE SEATS garden project for the famaly with big dining area and pergola

LOCATION Garden Design Dubai

TEAM Landscape architect Dubai

Garden project for the famaly with child-resistant borders

Many plants react quickly enough to occasional contact with children and their activities; others, however, if continuously tormented end up having such a miserable and battered air to induce you to abandon them permanently.

Therefore, on the borders of the areas most frequented by children, it is better to include relatively robust plants or those able to quickly recover from possible traumas.


Garden project for the famaly with child-resistant borders

1 – Ajuga reptans ‘Pink Surprise’
2 – Alchemilla mollis
3 – Amelanchier lamarckii
4 – Aucuba japonica ‘Picturata’
5 – Buxus sempervirens ‘
6 – Elegantissima ‘Choisya ‘Aztec Pearl’
7 – Corpus alba ‘Sibirica’
8 – Corylus maxima ‘Purpurea’
9 – Cotoneaster x suecicus ‘Coral Beauty’
10 – Euonymus fortunei ‘Emerald’ n ‘Gold’

11 – Geranium clarkei ‘Kashmir Purple’
12 – Geum rivale ‘Leonard’s Variety’
13 – Hedera helix ‘Goldchild’
14 – Hemerocallis ‘Stella de Oro’
15 – Lonicera nitida ‘Baggesen’s Gold’
16 – Viburnum davidii
17 – Viburnum tinus
18 – Vinca minor ‘Atropurpurea’


Also read: Playground areas and risk.