Landscape architect tips: Understanding Exposure of Plants to The Sun
When making garden design plans, it is important to determine how much shade and sun your garden receives.
There are some plants that require partial sun while some require full sun. There are even some that will survive with full shade. A landscape architect usually uses a compass to determine the direction that borders or areas will face in a garden design plan. Those that face the north will be in the shade for most parts of the day while those facing the south will be in the sun for most of the day. Those that face the east will have morning sun and evening shade. Those that face the west will experience the opposite of those that face the east.
The patterns of shade and sun will change during the day. A garden that is in full sun at midday will experience areas of shade in the late afternoon and the morning. A landscape architect needs to study the garden on a sunny day and understand the way shadows move around the garden. Sunlight movement is different for various seasons. An area that is in the shade during the summer could be in the sun in the summer. This could affect evergreen plants that require constant sunlight to survive.
No matter the amount of sun that a garden receives, there are always various plants that will survive in such conditions. There are plants that will thrive in both sun and shade and a mixture of both.
Microclimates in a Garden Should be Examined
The varying conditions in different parts of a garden are known as microclimates. These could include sheltered hotspots by a warm wall, areas with frost at the bottom of a slope and areas with lots of wind and areas that are exposed. The proper study of microclimates will help landscape designers grow various plants. The various water levels, air, wind circulation and temperature should be studied.
Various Types of Soil
To grow healthy plants in a garden, a landscape architect must find out the soil type that is in a garden. It is best to select plants that will grow in a particular soil type rather than trying to grow plants that will not thrive in a soil type.
There are three major types of soil. They are clay, silt and sandy. They are identified by the size of their particles. The size of their particles will determine the amount of plant food and water that they can hold. Most gardens have a combination of clay and sandy soil. One of the two is usually more abundant than the other. The perfect garden soil is loamy which is a combination of both sandy and clay soil in roughly equal amounts.
Sandy soil has particles that are relatively large and water drains easily through the large spaces between them. The soil drains water easily. The plant nutrients dissolve in the water so the soil is not fertile. Sandy soil is great for Mediterranean plants.
Clay soil has particles that are very tiny. The particles can store moisture in the gap between them. Clay soil retains water easily due to its porous particles. It is very rich in nutrients. But when they are wet, clay soils could get waterlogged and they can form impenetrable crusts when they are dry. They are perfect for hungry plants like fruit trees.
Silt soil is usually difficult to find. It can be found on river plains. They have a high nutrient content, and they can become waterlogged and compact like clay soil. Loam soil has roughly equal amounts of clay and sandy soil. They are the best of the lot. They retain enough water for the roots of plants to absorb and they allow any excess moisture to drain away, so they do not get waterlogged. They hold on to nutrients to well making them the perfect garden soil.
How to Improve Your Soil
You need to improve your soil regardless of your soil type. It doesn’t matter if you have a clay soil, sandy soil or dry soil, your plants will become better if you apply a lot of organic matter to the soil. You can apply garden compost, farmyard manure that has been left to rot and mushroom compost. The organic matter will open up clay soils and allow them to drain water easily. They will also coat sandy soil and help them to retain water. The organic matter can be dug into the soil when preparing for planting, or they can be laid as a thick layer of mulch. Microorganisms and worms will then work the organic matter into the soil.
If you add horticultural grit to clay soils, you can improve the drainage and structure of the soil. The grit can be dug into the soil over a large area. In tough cases, soils that are very heavy and waterlogged might need to be drained.
pH of a soil
The pH of a soil is a measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a soil. It affects the kind of plants that can be grown successfully in the soil. pH is measured on a scale of 1 to 14. Instead a pH of 7 means that the soil is neutral. A pH higher than 7 means that the soil is alkaline. A pH lower than 7 means that the soil is acidic. A soil test will measure the pH of a soil accurately.
There are plants that require a specific type of soil to grow. There are other plants that can grow in any pH range. The pineapple broom (Cytisus battandieri) and lilacs (Syringa vulgaris) grow best in alkaline soil while Rhododendrons, azaleas, and heathers (Erica) grow best in acidic soil.
Silty and Sandy soil
Silty soil is silky to the fingers while sandy soil is gritty between the fingers. When rolled into a ball, both of them will fall apart. Sandy soil is easy to dig and it gets warm easily in spring. Borderline hardy plants survive better in these soils that are dry.
Clay soil is dense, sticky and smooth. When rolled into a ball, it retains its shape. When it is even rolled into the shape of a horseshoe, it retains its shape. Clay soil is also called heavy because it is difficult to dig.
How to Use a pH test Kit
You can get a pH test kit from a garden center. You will place a sample of the soil in the tube and then you add the solution that comes with the kit. When the color of the solution changes, you can match it to the chart. You can take a few different readings from various areas of the garden since they could have various pH values.
Also read: GARDEN DESIGN HOW TO DESIGN WITH PLANTS.